WHO IS BOB MARLEY
Bob Marley was the world's first reggae superstar. He was part of the Jamaican group The Wailers, along with reggae greats Bunny Livingston and Peter Tosh. In the late 1960s and early '70s Marley, a Rastafarian, gained early attention for writing hits recorded by others, including "Stir It Up" (recorded by Johnny Nash) and "I Shot The Sheriff" (a hit for Eric Clapton). But then he came into his own international fame with songs that spoke of politics, religion and life on the streets, including his anthemic "Get Up, Stand Up." A greatest hits compilation titled Legend was released in 1984; it sold millions and earned a reputation as the one reggae album owned by people who own just one reggae album.
Extra credit: Marley's wife, Rita, and his son, Ziggy, have recording careers of their own.
BOB MARLEY BIOGRAPHY
Tremendously popular in their native Jamaica, where Bob Marley was regarded as a national hero, the Wailers were also reggae music's most effective international emissaries. Bob Marley's songs of determination, rebellion, and faith found an audience all over the world.
Marley left his rural home for the slums of Kingston at age 14. When he was 17, Jimmy Cliff [see entry] introduced him to Leslie Kong, who produced Marley’s first single, “Judge Not,” and several other obscure sides. In 1963, with the guidance of Jamaican pop veteran Joe Higgs, Marley formed the Wailers, a vocal quintet, with Peter Tosh, Bunny Livingstone, Junior Braithwaite, and Beverly Kelso. Their first single for producer Coxsone Dodd, “Simmer Down,” was one of the biggest Jamaican hits of 1964, and the Wailers remained on Dodd’s Studio One and Coxsone labels for three years, hitting with “Love and Affection.”
When Braithwaite and Kelso left the group around 1965, the Wailers continued as a trio, Marley, Tosh, and Livingstone trading leads. In spite of the popularity of singles like “Rude Boy,” the artists received few or no royalties, and in 1966 they disbanded. Marley spent most of the following year working in a factory in Newark, Delaware (where his mother had moved in 1963). Upon his return to Jamaica, the Wailers reunited and recorded, with little success, for Dodd and other producers. During this period, the Wailers devoted themselves to the religious sect of Rastafari.
In 1969 they began their three-year association with Lee “Scratch” Perry, who directed them to play their own instruments and expanded their lineup to include Aston and Carlton Barrett, formerly the rhythm section of Perry’s studio band, the Upsetters. Some of the records they made with Perry - like “Trenchtown Rock” - were locally very popular, but so precarious was the Jamaican record industry that the group seemed no closer than before to establishing steady careers. It formed an independent record company, Tuff Gong, in 1971, but the venture foundered when Livingstone was jailed and Marley got caught in a contract commitment to American pop singer Johnny Nash [see entry], who took him to Sweden to write a film score (and later had moderate hits with two Marley compositions, “Guava Jelly” and “Stir It Up”).
In 1972 Chris Blackwell - who had released “Judge Not” in England in 1963 - signed the Wailers to Island Records and advanced them the money to record themselves in Jamaica. Catch a Fire was their first album marketed outside Jamaica, which featured several uncredited performances such as Muscles Shoals’ guitarist Wayne Perkins playing lead on “Concrete Jungle” and “Stir It Up.” (They continued to release Jamaica-only singles on Tuff Gong.) Their recognition abroad was abetted by Eric Clapton’s hit version of “I Shot the Sheriff,” a song from their second Island album. They made their first overseas tour in 1973, but before the end of the year, Tosh and Livingstone (who later adopted the surname Wailer) left for solo careers [see entries].
Marley expanded the instrumental section of the group and brought in a female vocal trio, the I-Threes, which included his wife, Rita. Now called Bob Marley and the Wailers, they toured Europe, Africa, and the Americas, building especially strong followings in the U.K., Scandinavia, and Africa. They had U.K. Top 40 hits with “No Woman No Cry” (1975), “Exodus” (1977), “Waiting in Vain” (1977), and “Satisfy My Soul” (1978); and British Top 10 hits with “Jamming” (1977), “Punky Reggae Party” (1977), and “Is This Love” (1978).
In the U.S., only “Roots, Rock, Reggae” made the pop chart (#51, 1976), while “Could You Be Loved” placed on the soul charts (#56 R&B, 1980), but the group attracted an ever larger audience: Rastaman Vibration went to #8 pop and Exodus hit #20. In Jamaica the Wailers reached unprecedented levels of popularity and influence, and Marley’s pronouncements on public issues were accorded the attention usually reserved for political or religious leaders. In 1976 he was wounded in an assassination attempt.
A 1980 tour of the U.S. was canceled when Marley collapsed while jogging in New York’s Central Park. It was discovered that he had developed brain, lung, and liver cancer; it killed him eight months later. In 1987 both Peter Tosh and longtime Marley drummer Carlton Barrett were murdered in Jamaica during separate incidents. Rita Marley continues to tour, record, and run the Tuff Gong studios and record company.
Marley was a pioneer not only because he single-handedly brought reggae to the world, but because his passionate, socially observant music has become a yardstick against which all reggae will forever be measured.
from The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (Simon and Schuster, 2001)
BOB MARLEY'S CAREER
"I love the development of our music, that's what I
really dig about the whole thing. How we've tried
to develop, y'know? It grows. That's why every day
people come forward with new songs. Music goes on
forever." --Bob Marley, August 1979
We remember the brilliant and evocative music Bob Marley gave the world; music that stretches back over nearly two decades and still remains timeless and universal. Marley has been called "the first Third World superstar," "Rasta Prophet," "visionary," and" "revolutionary artist." These accolades were not mere hyperbole. Marley was one of the most charismatic and challenging performers of our time. Bob Marley's career stretched back over twenty years. During that time Marley's growing style encompassed every aspect in the rise of Jamaican music, from ska to contemporary reggae. That growth was well reflected in the maturity of the Wailers' music. Bob's first recording attempts came at the beginning of the Sixties. His first two tunes, cut as a solo artist, meant nothing in commercial terms and it wasn't until 1964, as a founding member of a group called the Wailing Wailers, that Bob first hit the Jamaican charts. The record was "Simmer Down," and over the next few years the Wailing Wailers -- Bob, Peter Mclntosh and Bunny Livingston, the nucleus of the group -- put out some 30 sides that properly established them as one of the hottest groups in Jamaica. Mclntosh later shortened his surname to Tosh while Livingston is now called Bunny Wailer. Despite their popularity, the economics of keeping the group together proved too much and the two other members, Junior Braithwaite and Beverley Kelso, left the group. At the same time Bob joined his mother in the United States. This marked the end of the Wailing Wailers, Chapter One. Marley's stay in America was short-lived, however, and he returned to Jamaica to join up again with Peter and Bunny. By the end of the Sixties, with the legendary reggae producer Lee "Scratch" Perry at the mixing desk, The Wailers were again back at the top in Jamaica. The combination of the Wailers and Perry resulted in some of the finest music the band ever made. Tracks like "Soul Rebel," "Duppy Conquerer," "400 Years," and "Small Axe" were not only classics, but they defined the future direction of reggae. It's difficult to properly understand Bob Marley's music without considering Rastafari. His spiritual beliefs are too well known to necessitate further explanation. It must be stated, however, that Rastafari is at the very core of the Wailers' music. In 1970 Aston Familyman Barrett and his brother Carlton (bass and drums, respectively) joined the Wailers. They came to the band unchallenged as Jamaica's HARDEST rhythm section; a reputation that was to remain undiminished during the following decade. Meanwhile, the band's own reputation was, at the start of the Seventies, an extraordinary one throughout the Caribbean. However, the band was still unknown internationally. That was to change in 1972 when the Wailers signed to Island Records. It was a revolutionary move for an international record company and a reggae band. For the first time a reggae band had access to the best recording facilities and were treated in the same way as a rock group. Before the Wailers signed to Island, it was considered that reggae sold only on singles and cheap compilation albums. The Wailer's first album, Catch A Fire broke all the rules: it was beautifully packaged and heavily promoted. And it was the start of a long climb to international fame and recognition. The Catch A Fire album was followed a year later by Burnin', an LP that included some of the band's older songs, such as "Duppy Conquerer," "Small Axe," and "Put In On," together with tracks like "Get Up Stand Up" and "I Shot The Sheriff" (which was also recorded by Eric Clapton, who had a #1 hit with it in America). In 1975 Bob Marley & The Wailers released the extraordinary Natty Dread album, and toured Europe that summer. The shows were recorded and the subsequent live album, together with the single, "No Woman No Cry," both made the UK charts. By that time Bunny and Peter had officially left the band to pursue their own solo careers. Rastaman Vibration, the follow-up album in 1976, cracked the American charts. It was, for many, the clearest exposition yet of Marley's music and beliefs, including such tracks as "Crazy Baldhead," "Johnny Was," "Who The Cap Fit" and, perhaps most significantly of all, "War," the Iyrics of which were taken from a speech by Emperor Haile Selassie. In 1977 Exodus was released, which established Marley's international superstar status. It remained on the British charts for 56 straight weeks, and netted three UK hit singles, "Exodus," "Waiting In Vain," and "Jamming." In 1978 the band released Kaya, which hit number four on the UK chart the week of its release. That album saw Marley in a different mood -- Kaya was an album of love songs, and, of course, homages to the power of ganja. There were two more events in 1978, both of which were of extraordinary significance to Marley. In April that year he returned to Jamaica (he had left in 1976 after the shooting that had almost cost him his life), to play the One Love Peace Concert in front of the Prime Minister Michael Manley, and the then Leader of the Opposition Edward Seaga. And at the end of the year he visited Africa for the first time, going initially to Kenya and then on to Ethiopia, spiritual home of Rastafari. Marley returned to Africa in 1980 at the official initation of the Government of Zimbabwe to play at that country's Independence Ceremony. It was the greatest honor afforded the band, and one which underlined the Wailers' importance in the Third World. In 1979 the Survival LP was released. A European tour came the following year: the band broke festival records throughout the continent, including a 100,000 capacity show in Milan. Bob Marley & the Wailers were now the most important band on the road that year and the new Uprising album hit every chart in Europe. It was a period of maximum optimism and plans were being made for an American tour, an opening slot with Stevie Wonder for the following winter. At the end of the European tour, Bob Marley & The Wailers went to America. Bob played two shows at Madison Square Garden but, immediately afterwards he was seriously ill. Cancer was diagnosed. Marley fought the disease for eight months. The battle, however, proved to be too much. He died in a Miami Hospital on May 11,1981. A month before the end Bob was awarded Jamaica's Order of Merit, the nations' third highest honor, in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the country's culture. On Thursday, May 23,1981, the Honorable Robert Nesta Marley was given an official funeral by the people of Jamaica. Following the funeral -- attended by both the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition -- Bob's body was taken to his birthplace where it now rests in a mausoleum. Bob Marley was 36 years old. His legend lives on.
BOB MARLEY QUOTES
Bob Marley isn't my name. I don't even know my name yet."
"I've been here before and will come again, but I'm not going this trip through."
"The more people smoke herb, the more Babylon fall."
"My music will go on forever. Maybe it's a fool say that, but when me know facts me can say facts. My music will go on forever."
"I believe in freedom for everyone, not just the black man."
"The only truth is Rastafari."-August, 1980
"My future is righteousness."-February, 1976
"Rastafari not a culture, it's a reality."-February, 1976
"I handle fame by not being famous...I'm not famous to me."-December, 1974
"I'm a man of God and me come to do God's work."-June, 1975
"My music fights against the system that teaches to live and die."-June ,1976
"I go to jail one time for no driver license."-February, 1976
"You have to be someone."-July, 1979
"Overcome the devils with a thing named love."-June 1975
"Well, me don't swim too tough so me don't go in the water too deep."-July, 1975
"A little wine sometimes, that's all. Spirits (are) bad. Alcohol wrong. Herb does grow."-June, 1976 "I have a BMW. But only because BMW stands for Bob Marley and The Wailers, and not because I need an expensive car."-1977
"(I drive) a jeep. An old jeep, so nobody will say I'm driving a BMW anymore. I couldn't stand that BMW, ha ha ha! BMW make pure trouble!"-Septmeber, 1980
BOB MARLEY'S LIFE
Early life and career
Marley was born in the small village of Nine Mile in Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica. His father, Norval Sinclair Marley, (born in 1895), was a Jamaican of English descent, with parents from Sussex. Norval was a marine officer and captain, as well as a plantation overseer, when he married Cedella Booker, a black Jamaican then eighteen years old. Norval provided financial support for his wife and child, but seldom saw them, as he was often away on trips. Marley was ten years old when his father died of a heart attack in 1955 at age 60.
Marley suffered racial prejudice as a youth, because of his mixed racial origins, and faced questions about his own racial identity throughout his life. He once reflected:
I don't have prejudice against myself. My father was a white and my mother was black. Them call me half-caste or whatever. Me don't dip on nobody's side. Me don't dip on the black man's side nor the white man's side. Me dip on God's side, the one who create me and cause me to come from black and white.
Marley and his mother moved to Kingston's Trenchtown slum after Norval's death. He was forced to learn self-defense, as he became the target of bullying because of his racial makeup and small stature (5'4" or 163 cm tall). He gained a reputation for his physical strength, which earned him the nickname "Tuff Gong".
Marley became friends with Neville "Bunny" Livingston (later known as Bunny Wailer), with whom he started to play music. He left school at the age of 14 and started as an apprentice at a local welder's shop. In his free time, he and Livingston made music with Joe Higgs, a local singer and devout Rastafari who is regarded by many as Marley's mentor. It was at a jam session with Higgs and Livingston that Marley met Peter McIntosh (later known as Peter Tosh), who had similar musical ambitions.
In 1962, Marley recorded his first two singles, "Judge Not" and "One Cup of Coffee", with local music producer Leslie Kong. These songs, released on the Beverley's label under the pseudonym of Bobby Martell, attracted little attention. The songs were later re-released on the album Songs of Freedom, a posthumous collection of Marley's songs.
Wikinews has related news: Vivien Goldman: An interview with Bob Marley's Biographer In 1963, Bob Marley, Bunny Livingston, Peter McIntosh, Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, and Cherry Smith formed a ska and rocksteady group, calling themselves "The Teenagers". They later changed their name to "The Wailing Rudeboys", then to "The Wailing Wailers", and finally to "The Wailers". By 1966, Braithwaite, Kelso, and Smith had left The Wailers, leaving the core trio of Marley, Livingston, and McIntosh.
Marley took on the role of leader, singer, and main songwriter. Much of The Wailers' early work, including their first single Simmer Down, was produced by Coxsone Dodd at Studio One. Simmer Down topped Jamaican Charts in 1964 and established The Wailers as one of the hottest groups in the country. They followed up with songs such as "Soul Rebel" and "400 Years".
In 1966, Marley married Rita Anderson, and moved near his mother's residence in Wilmington, Delaware for a few months. Upon returning to Jamaica, Marley became a member of the Rastafari movement, and started to wear his trademark dreadlocks
After a conflict with Dodd, Marley and his band teamed up with Lee "Scratch" Perry and his studio band, The Upsetters. Although the alliance lasted less than a year, they recorded what many consider The Wailers' finest work. Marley and Perry split after a dispute regarding the assignment of recording rights, but they would remain friends and work together again.
Between 1968 and 1972, Bob and Rita Marley, Peter McIntosh and Bunny Livingston re-cut some old tracks with JAD Records in Kingston and London in an attempt to commercialize The Wailers' sound. Livingston later asserted that these songs "should never be released on an album … they were just demos for record companies to listen to."
The Wailers' first album, Catch a Fire, was released worldwide in 1973, and sold well. It was followed a year later by Burnin', which included the songs "Get Up, Stand Up" and "I SHot the Sheriff". Eric Clapton made a hit cover of "I Shot the Sheriff" in 1974, raising Marley's international profile.
The Wailers broke up in 1974 with each of the three main members going on to pursue solo careers. The reason for the breakup is shrouded in conjecture; some believe that there were disagreements amongst Livingston, McIntosh, and Marley concerning performances, while others claim that Livingston and McIntosh simply preferred solo work. McIntosh began recording under the name Peter Tosh, and Livingston continued as Bunny Wailer.
Bob Marley and The Wailers
Despite the breakup, Marley continued recording as "Bob MArley & The Wailers". His new backing band included brothers Carlton and Aston "Family Man" Barrett on drums and bass respectively. Junior Marvin and Al Anderson on lead guitar, Tyrone Downie and Earl "Wya" Lindo on keyboards, and Alvin "SeecO" Patterson on percussion. The "I Threes", consisting of Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths, and Marley's wife, Rita, provided backing vocals.
In 1975, Marley had his international breakthrough with his first hit outside Jamaica, "No Woman, No Cry" from the Natty Dread album. This was followed by his breakthrough album in the US, Rastaman Vibration (1976), which spent four weeks on the Billboard charts Top Ten.
In December 1976, two days before "Smile Jamaica", a free concert organized by the Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley in an attempt to ease tension between two warring political groups, Marley, his wife, and manager Don Taylor were wounded in an assault by unknown gunmen inside Marley's home. Taylor and Marley's wife sustained serious injuries, but later made full recoveries. Bob Marley received only minor injuries in the chest and arm. The shooting was thought to have been politically motivated, as many felt the concert was really a support rally for Manley. Nonetheless, the concert proceeded, and an injured Marley performed as scheduled.
Bob Marley Live a painting by Steve Brogdon 1992 Marley left Jamaica at the end of 1976 for England, where he recorded his Exodus and Kava albums. Exodus stayed on teh British album charts for 56 consecutive weeks. It included four UK hit singles: "Exodus", "Waiting In Vain", "Jamming", "One Love", and a rendition of Curtis Mayfield's hit, "People Get Ready". It was here that he was arrested and recieved a conviction for possession of a small quantity of cannabis while traveling in London.
Main article: One Love Peace Concert in 1978, Marley performed at another political concert in Jamaica, the One Love Peace Concert, again in an effort to calm warring parties. Near the end of the performance. by Marley's request, Manley and his political rival, Edward Seaga, joined each other on stage and shook hands.
Survival, a defiant and politically charged album, was released in 1979. Tracks such as "Zimbabwe", "Africa Unite", "Wake up and Live", and "Survival" reflected Marley's support for the struggles of Africans. In early 1980, he was invited to perform at the April 17 celebration of Zimbabwe's Independanve Day.
Uprising (1980) was Bob Marley's final studio album, and is one of his most religious productions, including "Redemption Song" and "Forever Loving Jah". It was in "Redemption Song" that Marley sang the famous lyric, "Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery None but ourselves can free our minds..."
Confrontation, released posthumously in 1983, contained unreleased material recorded during Marley's lifetime, including the hit "Buffalo Soldier" and new mixes of singles previously only available in Jamaica.
In 2008, Bob Marley and the Wailer's music will be featured in the film movie adaptation of Irvine Welsh's best-selling novel Ecstasy: Three Tales of Chemical Romance.
In July 1977, Marley was found to have malignant melanoma in a football wound on his right hallux (big toe). Marley refused amputation, citing worries that the operation would affect his dancing, as well as the Rastafari belief that the body must be "whole":
"Rasta no abide amputation, I don't allow a man to be dismantled." From the Biography "Catch a Fire"
Marley may have seen medical doctors as samfai (tricksters, deceivers). True to this belief Marley went against all surgical possibilities and sought out other means that would not break his religious beliefs. He also refused to register a will, based on the Rastafari belief that writing a will is acknowledging death as inevitable, thus disregarding the everlasting (or everliving, as Rastas say) character of life.
Collapse and treatment
The cancer then metastasized to Marley's brain, lungs, liver, and stomach. After playing two shows at Madison Square Garden as part of his fall 1980 Uprising Tour, he collapsed while jogging in NYC's Central Park. The remainder of the tour was subsequently cancelled.
Bob Marley played his final concert at the Stanley Theater in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on September 23, 1980. The live version of "Redemption Song" on Songs of Freedom was recorded at this show. Marley afterwards sought medical help from Munich specialist Josef Issels, but his cancer had already progressed to the terminal stage.
Death and posthumous reputation
While flying home from Germany to Jamaica for his final days, Marley became ill, and landed in Miami for immediate medical attention. He passed away at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Miami, Florida on the morning of May 11, 1981 at the age of 36. His final words to his son Ziggy were "Money can't buy life." Marley recieved a state funeral in Jamaica, which combined elements of Etheopian Orthodoxy and Rastafari tradition. He was buried in a crypt near his birthplace with his Gibson Les Paul, a soccer ball, a Cannabis bud, a ring that he wore every day that was givento him by the Prince Asfa Wossen of Etheopia (eldest son of HIM), and a Bible. A month before his death, he was awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit.
Bob Marley's music has continuously grown in popularity in the years since his death, providing a stream of revenue for his estate and affording him a mythical status in 20th century music history. He remains enormously popular and well-known all over the world, particularly so in Africa. Marley was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994. Time magazine chose Bob Marley & The Wailer's Exodus as the greatest album of the 20th century.
In 2001, the same year that Marley was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievment Award, a feature-length documentary about his life, Rebel Music, was nominated for Best Long Form Music Video documentary at the Grammys. It won various other awards. With contributions from Rita, The Wailers, and Marley's lovers and children, it also tells much of the story in his own words.
In Summer 2006, the city of New York renamed a portion of Church Avenue from Remsen Avenue to East 98th Streed in the East Flatbush section of Brooklyn Bob MArley Blvd.
Bob Marley was a member of the Rastafari movement, whose culture was a key element in the development of reggae. Bob Marley became the leading proponent of the rastafari, taking their music out of the socially deprived areas of Jamaica and onto the international music space.
Now considered a "Rasta" legend, Marley's adoption of the characteristic Rastafari dreadlocks, famous use of Cannabis as a sacred sacrament, and vegetarianism, which in the late sixties were an integral part of his persona. He is said to have entered every performance proclaiming the divinity of Jah Rastafari.
On November 4, 1980 Marley was baptized by the archbishop of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Kingston, Jamaica. Here is what Archbishop Abuna Yesehag had to say on Marley:
"Bob was really a good brother, a child of God, regardless of how people looked at him. He had a desire to be baptised long ago, but there were people close to him who controlled him and who were aligned to a different aspect of Rastafari, but he came to church regularly. I remember once while I was conducting the Mass, I looked at Bob and tears were streaming down his face...When he toured Los Angeles, New York, and England, he preached the Orthodox faith, and many members in those cities came to the church because of Bob. Many people think he was baptised because he knew he was dying, but that is not so...he did it when there was no longer any pressure on him, and when he was baptised, he hugged his family and wept, they all wept together for about half an gour."
Many of Marley's songs contained Biblical references, sometimes using wordplay to fuse activism and religion, as in "Revolution" and "Revelation":
"Revelation reveals the truth..." "It takes a revolution to make a solution..."
Bob Marley had 13 children: three with his wife Rita, two adopted from Rita's previous relationships, and the remaining eight with seperate women. His children are, in order of birth:
Imani Carole, born May 22, 1963, to Cheryl Murray; Sharon, born November 23, 1964, to Rita in previous relationship; Cedella Marley born August 23, 1967, to Rita; David "Ziggy", born October 17, 1968, to Rita; Stephen, born April 20, 1972, to Rita; Robert "Robbie", born May 16. 1972, to Pat Williams; Rohan, born May 19, 1972, to Janet Hunt; Karen, born 1973 to Janet Bowen; Stephanie, born August 17, 1974; according to Cedella Booker she was the daughter of Rita and a man called Ital with whom Rita had an affair; nonetheless she was acknowledged as Bob's daughter; Julian, born June 4, 1975 to Lucy Pounder; Ky-Mani, born February 26, 1976, to Anita Belnavis; Damian, born July 21, 1978, to Cindy Breakspeare; Makeda, born may 30, 1981, to Yvette Crichton.
Apr–Jul 1973: Catch a Fire Tour (England, USA) Oct–Nov 1973: Burnin' Tour (USA, England) Jun–Jul 1975: Natty Dread Tour (USA, Canada, England) Apr–Jul 1976: Rastaman Vibration Tour (USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden, Netherlands, France, England, Wales) May–Jun 1977: Exodus Tour (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, England) May–Aug 1978: Kaya Tour (USA, Canada, England, France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium) Apr–May 1979: Babylon by Bus Tour (Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii) Oct–Dec 1979: Survival Tour (USA, Canada, Trinidad/Tobago, Bahamas) May–Sep 1980: Uprising Tour (Switzerland, Germany, France, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales, USA)
Awards and honors
Marley's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame 1976: Band of the Year (Rolling Stones) June 1978: Awarded the Peace Medal of the Third World from the United Nations February 1981: Awarded Jamaica's third highest honor, the Jamaican Order of Merit March 1994: Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 1999: Album of the Century for Exodus (Time Magazine) February 2001: A star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame February 2001: Awarded Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award 2004: Rolling Stone Magazine ranked him #11 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. "One Love" named song of the millennium by the BBC: Voted as one of the greatest lyricists of all time by a BBC poll.